Ellman, Michael (2000). The social costs and consequences of the transformation process.. UNECE (Ed.) (pp. 125-145). United Natons Economic Commission for Europe.
In the decade 1989-1999 the Soviet empire collapsed, a number of states in central and eastern Europe disintegrated and new ones were formed, and the political-economic system throughout the region was transformed. During this transformation there have been sweeping social changes, frequently for the worse. The purpose of this paper is to survey these adverse phenomena, to the extent that the available data makes this possible, paying particular attention to the question of whether they were caused by the transformation, or by other factors, and whether existing accounts of these phenomena offer a fair picture. The main issues considered are: What were the costs? Who paid them? Why has there been so little political protest? How does the present system change in the region compare with the previous one?