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Who wants to redistribute? The tunnel effect in 1990s Russia


Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael (2000). Who wants to redistribute? The tunnel effect in 1990s Russia. Journal of Public Economics, 76(1), 87-104.


Support for governmental redistribution tended to be greater for the poor than the rich in a representative sample of Russian adults in 1996. However, support for redistribution is higher amongst those who expect their welfare to fall, and this effect is strongest amongst the currently well-off. A rising trajectory inhibits demand for redistribution. Support is also stronger in rural areas, amongst those with less schooling, those who fear losing their job, the elderly, and amongst women. Our results are consistent with Albert Hirschman's idea of a "tunnel effect," whereby prospects of mobility (in both directions) influence demand for governmental redistribution.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Public Economics


Ravallion, Martin
Lokshin, Michael