CitationKingkade, Ward (1997). Population trends: Russia. U. S. Department of Commerce.
AbstractWhile recent Russian demographic
trends reflect the country’s current
economic and social malaise, they
also continue to reveal the shocks
experienced by Russia’s population
earlier in this century.
Russia’s fertility has been falling
sharply since the breakup of the
USSR: Russia’s 1993 total fertility
rate (TFR) of 1.4 ranks among the
lowest in Europe. Despite this,
access to modern contraceptive
methods remains difficult.
In 1992 Russia’s population passed
a demographic milestone, experiencing
more deaths than births.
Although attention is often given
to the increased mortality among
adult men, mortality has also risen
for women and infants.
National averages for Russia as
a whole often mask variation in
demographic patterns and conditions
within Russia’s vast territory.