Milanovic, Branko (2000). A new polarization measure and some applications. World Bank Development Research Working Paper
The paper proposes a new polarization measures that conceptually belong to the class of Gini-type functions. It is shown that the measure satisfies four key axioms. The measure is also easy to compute. Its properties are explored and the polarization index results are contrasted with those obtained from the Gini index using some simulated and real-world data. Inequality and polarization are shown to be related but distinct phenomena.
World Bank Development Research Working Paper