World Health Organization (2003). Russian women live longer but less healthy lives than men. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(11)
Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy for men and women were compared in the Russian Federation and in countries of Eastern and Western Europe. Using WHO mortality data and data on self-reported health from the World Values Survey and the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, the study found that healthy life expectancy both for men and women in the Russian Federation was reduced. It also found that although Russian men lived shorter lives than Russian women, the lives of the latter were less healthy. Self-reported health was recognized as a limitation and is the subject of the accompanying commentary.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization