Monusova, Galina A. (1999). Industrial workers in Russia. Sociological Research, 38(5)
Since the movement toward a market economy began in Russia in 1992, production has fallen and the number of employed has been reduced. The drop in the employment rate lagged considerably behind the decline in production, and, until 1995, unemployment was negligible . Enterprises adapted to the changed conditions not with dismissals but through flexible employment . Such flexibility caused a relative decline in real wages and sometimes took the form of reduced work time, forced leaves, delayed wages, and the abolition of indexing of inflation-related losses. Since the end of 1995, these processes have affected all groups employed in industry . At the same time, despite growing unemployment and the steady shrinking of opportunities to arrange a job, the industrial workforce has retained a high mobility . On the whole, however, the restructuring of employment has been more spontaneous than the result of deliberate policy .
Monusova, Galina A.