Skip to main content

Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?


Wade, Benjamin; Merrill, Ray M.; & Lindsay, Gordon B. (2011). Cigarette pack warning labels in Russia: how graphic should they be?. The European Journal of Public Health, 21(3), 366.


Background: Tobacco warning labels on cigarette packs have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption. The current study measures the Russian population’s acceptance and preference of graphic (picture + text) tobacco warning labels.

Methods: Nationally representative data were collected from 1778 participants in the Russian Federation in October 2009. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through person-to-person household interviews with respondents aged ≥14 years. Survey questions included standard demographic queries and three study-specific questions. Participants rated the strength of 13 cigarette warning labels according to their effectiveness to deter from smoking. Smoking status and the population’s acceptance of similar warning labels was also measured.

Results: A dose–response pattern is apparent between the degree of graphic content of cigarette warning labels and the public’s perception regarding the warning label’s ability to discourage smoking. Approximately 87% of all respondents thought Russian authorities should require tobacco manufacturers to place graphic warning labels on cigarette packs, while 80% of current smokers wanted their government to enact such enforcement.

Conclusion: The Russian population would strongly support government policy that would require graphic warning labels to be placed on cigarette packs in their country. In order to best deter from smoking, future cigarette warning labels in Russia should be as graphic as possible.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

The European Journal of Public Health


Wade, Benjamin
Merrill, Ray M.
Lindsay, Gordon B.