Kim, Byung-Yeon (2003). Informal economy activities of Soviet households: size and dynamics. Journal of Comparative Economics, 31(3)
Using unpublished archival data from Soviet family budget surveys, this paper estimates the size of the informal economy of Soviet households from 1969 to 1990. We find that the average household expenditure in the informal economy, as a share of total household expenditure, was 23% from 1969 to 1990, which would contribute an additional 6.8% to Soviet Gross National Product. However, this share did not increase over time, indicating that informal household economy activities do not account for the collapse of the Soviet economy. In addition, we provide an estimate of the size of the informal household economy in each former Soviet republic in 1989 and find substantial variation across republics.
Journal of Comparative Economics