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Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis

Citation

The GBD 2013 Obesity Collaboration,; Ng, Marie; Fleming, Tom; Robinson, Margaret; Thomson, Blake; Graetz, Nicholas; Margono, Christopher; Mullany, Erin C.; Biryukov, Stan; & Abbafati, Cristiana, et al. (2014). Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis. Lancet, 384(9945), 766-781.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost, and 3.8% of DALYs globally. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparative, up-to-date information on levels and trends is essential both to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision-makers to prioritize action. METHODS: We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n = 1,769) that included information on height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. Mixed effects linear regression was used to correct for the bias in self-reports. Age-sex-country-year observations (n = 19,244) on prevalence of obesity and overweight were synthesized using a spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals. FINDINGS: Globally, the proportion of adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater increased from 28.8% (95% UI: 28.4-29.3) in 1980 to 36.9% (36.3-37.4) in 2013 for men and from 29.8% (29.3-30.2) to 38.0% (37.5-38.5) for women. Increases were observed in both developed and developing countries. There have been substantial increases in prevalence among children and adolescents in developed countries, with 23.8% (22.9-24.7) of boys and 22.6% (21.7-23.6) of girls being either overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is also rising among children and adolescents in developing countries as well, rising from 8.1% (7.7-8.6) to 12.9% (12.3-13.5) in 2013 for boys and from 8.4% (8.1-8.8) to 13.4% (13.0-13.9) in girls. Among adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeds 50% among men in Tonga and women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has stabilized. INTERPRETATION: Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Contrary to other major global risks, there is little evidence of successful population-level intervention strategies to reduce exposure. Not only is obesity increasing, but there are no national success stories over the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is required to assist countries to more effectively intervene.

URL

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4624264/

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published

2014

Journal Title

Lancet

Author(s)

The GBD 2013 Obesity Collaboration,
Ng, Marie
Fleming, Tom
Robinson, Margaret
Thomson, Blake
Graetz, Nicholas
Margono, Christopher
Mullany, Erin C.
Biryukov, Stan
Abbafati, Cristiana
Abera, Semaw Ferede
Abraham, Jerry P.
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.
Achoki, Tom
AlBuhairan, Fadia S.
Alemu, Zewdie A.
Alfonso, Rafael
Ali, Mohammed K.
Ali, Raghib
Guzman, Nelson Alvis
Ammar, Walid
Anwari, Palwasha
Banerjee, Amitava
Barquera, Simon
Basu, Sanjay
Bennett, Derrick A.
Bhutta, Zulfiqar
Blore, Jed
Cabral, Norberto
Nonato, Ismael Campos
Chang, Jung-Chen
Chowdhury, Rajiv
Courville, Karen J.
Criqui, Michael H.
Cundiff, David K.
Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.
Dandona, Lalit
Davis, Adrian
Dayama, Anand
Dharmaratne, Samath D.
Ding, Eric L.
Durrani, Adnan M.
Esteghamati, Alireza
Farzadfar, Farshad
Fay, Derek F. J.
Feigin, Valery L.
Flaxman, Abraham
Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
Goto, Atsushi
Green, Mark A.
Gupta, Rajeev
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Hankey, Graeme J.
Harewood, Heather C.
Havmoeller, Rasmus
Hay, Simon
Hernandez, Lucia
Husseini, Abdullatif
Idrisov, Bulat T.
Ikeda, Nayu
Islami, Farhad
Jahangir, Eiman
Jassal, Simerjot K.
Jee, Sun Ha
Jeffreys, Mona
Jonas, Jost B.
Kabagambe, Edmond K.
Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan
Kengne, Andre Pascal
Khader, Yousef Saleh
Khang, Young-Ho
Kim, Daniel
Kimokoti, Ruth W.
Kinge, Jonas M.
Kokubo, Yoshihiro
Kosen, Soewarta
Kwan, Gene
Lai, Taavi
Leinsalu, Mall
Li, Yichong
Liang, Xiaofeng
Liu, Shiwei
Logroscino, Giancarlo
Lotufo, Paulo A.
Lu, Yuan
Ma, Jixiang
Mainoo, Nana Kwaku
Mensah, George A.
Merriman, Tony R.
Mokdad, Ali H.
Moschandreas, Joanna
Naghavi, Mohsen
Naheed, Aliya
Nand, Devina
Narayan, K. M. Venkat
Nelson, Erica Leigh
Neuhouser, Marian L.
Nisar, Muhammad Imran
Ohkubo, Takayoshi
Oti, Samuel O.
Pedroza, Andrea
Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
Roy, Nobhojit
Sampson, Uchechukwu
Seo, Hyeyoung
Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
Shibuya, Kenji
Shiri, Rahman
Shiue, Ivy
Singh, Gitanjali M.
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Skirbekk, Vegard
Stapelberg, Nicolas J. C.
Sturua, Lela
Sykes, Bryan L.
Tobias, Martin
Tran, Bach X.
Trasande, Leonardo
Toyoshima, Hideaki
van de Vijver, Steven
Vasankari, Tommi J.
Veerman, J. Lennert
Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
Vollset, Stein Emil
Vos, Theo
Wang, Claire
Wang, Sharon XiaoRong
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Werdecker, Andrea
Wright, Jonathan L.
Yang, Y. Claire
Yatsuya, Hiroshi
Yoon, Jihyun
Yoon, Seok-Jun
Zhao, Yong
Zhou, Maigeng
Zhu, Shankuan
Lopez, Alan D.
Murray, Christopher J. L.
Gakidou, Emmanuela