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Inequalities in Perceived Health in the Russian Federation, 1994–2012


Paul, Pavitra & Valtonen, Hannu (2016). Inequalities in Perceived Health in the Russian Federation, 1994–2012. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 165.


Individual characteristics and socioeconomic strata (SES) are important determinants of health differences. We examine health inequalities in Russia and estimate the association of demography (gender and age) and SES (working status, income, geography of residence, living standard, wealth possession, and durable asset-holding) with perceived health over the period 1994–2012.

This study uses nationally representative datasets from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS: 1994–2012). We apply a random effect GLS model to examine the association of individual characteristics and individual heterogeneity in explaining self-perceived health status. In addition, we estimate a regression-based concentration index, which we decompose into the determinants of health inequalities.

The self-perceived health differences between the better-off and the worse-off is reduced over the 18 year period (1994 – 2012). The individual variances in self-perceived health status are higher compared to the variances between the individuals over the period. The measure of health inequality index (concentration index) indicates a change for better health for the better-off Russians. Being employed matters in perceiving a better health status for the Russians in 2012.

Self-perceived health differences in the Russian Federation has changed over time. Such differences in changes are attributable to both changes in the distribution of the determinants of health as well as changes in the association between the determinants of health with the self-perceived health status. Though this study identifies the determinants of health inequalities for the Russians, the future research is to examine the in-country distribution of these determinants that produce health differences within the Russian Federation.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

BMC Public Health


Paul, Pavitra
Valtonen, Hannu