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Income mobility and the middle class in Russia, 1995–2007


Nissanov, Zoya (2017). Income mobility and the middle class in Russia, 1995–2007. Post-Communist Economies, 29(2), 250-264.


This article analyzes the determinants of income mobility between 1995 and 2007, using the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). The analysis uses the mixture model method and is carried out between and within income groups, defined on the basis of household income. The results of the within-group analysis suggest that the probability of remaining in the middle of the income distribution is greater than that of remaining poor or rich. However, if a household moves away from the middle group, the probability of falling into the bottom group is much higher than that of moving upwards.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Post-Communist Economies


Nissanov, Zoya