Clément, Matthieu (2005). Pauvreté en Russie. Un etat des lieux. Le Courrier des Pays de l'Est, 5(1051)
Since 2000, the dynamic growth of the Russian economy generated an improvement of the standard of living and supported a clear reduction in poverty. Nevertheless, the stagnation of inequality and the concentration of incomes in the higher strata of the population suggest that Russian society remains strongly polarized and underline the instability of the middle class. Moreover, the brittleness of several social categories (households with unemployed members, single-parent or numerous families, etc) shows that the system of social protection is unable to help the most stripped of. This inefficiency, which is due in particular to the inadequacy of social assistance, encouraged households to set up strategies that aim at fighting against poverty. Most of the time, these copying strategies rest on a diversification of income sources. Thus, in spite of the rise of the standard of living since 2000, domestic production, informal social networks or informal activities are strongly anchored in Russian society.
Le Courrier des Pays de l'Est