Nazarova, Inna B. (2006). Labor loading and health during period of reform.
Dynamic of death & diseases rate has show a dramatic picture in Russia. During the reforms period of particularly level health of the able-bodied population fell. The subjective information health level on the factors influencing health during the period of reforms was obtained through 87 deep interviews conducted in research "Health & work conditions" (interviews were conducted 2005-2005 in three Russian cities: Moscow, Kazan', Voronezh). Labor & employment conditions were influence health explored of Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) 1994-2003 (about 10000 adult respondents) by using the results data. Respondents of deep interviews formed three groups: (a) reforms did not affect health (respondents consider that there are many other factors influencing health except reforms); (b) health was influenced not by the reforms themselves but by their consequences; (c) reforms definitely influenced health (respondents consider reforms to be the main cause of health change). However, most cases of health deterioration are linked with reforms direct or indirect. Most of stressful life events were the result of social structure change. More detailed information show that people associate health problems with heavy workloads or workplace hazard. These reasons were named third after problems of aging (persons 43 & oldest), & a lack of necessary treatment (or preventive health maintenance) because of financial strait. Main factors influence health (according to the respondents' opinion): Work loss; Period of unemployment (once or several times); The compelled frequent job change; The compelled participation in informal employment, & in contingent employment; Long period of work search; Delays of wages payment; A low wages level; Job dissatisfaction (work does not correspond to a speciality, interests; the social status decrease); Inability to get a new speciality claimed on labor market; Absence of career growth; Working through illness & injury (presenteeism); Continuation of work at loss of health (for example, after retire); Absence of social support; Decrease of the working person status & regard; Job instability; Workplace hazard; Increase of working hours duration (long hours of work); Multiple employment; Work overload. The RLMS confirms the deep interviews data: people physical resources spend their activity. People having several jobs (full-time & part-time employment), are satisfied with life more often than who have one job. In some years when workloads were especially great, women having multiple employment were twice more likely to estimate their health worse. In some years women having secondary employment were more likely to report health problems (OR - 1.6), men experience the same result (OR - 1.9). From 1994 for 2003 parameters of physical health were declining, & labor loadings growing. As a rule, multiple employment is associated with long workday or workweek. From 1994 more & more people tend to decrease their workload year after year. Therefore was increasing annually the charge of physical & emotional potential of good health people, & poor health people also. The combination of several places of employment leads to frequent health problems, however people engaged in secondary employment go to the doctor less often, than those who have one work or are unemployed.
Nazarova, Inna B.