Gorshkov, Mikhail (2002). The dynamics of value-orientations of citizens of Russia under conditions of a systemic transformation.
According to longitudinal monitoring the highest values of the Russians remain an undisturbed conscience and a stable family. Students and a new class of businessmen specifically differ by their value preferences running counter to traditional Russian mentality. Qualitative shifts in value preferences have also affected basic democratic values. Freedom of speech and press (86%), electivity of all bodies of power (76%), freedom of going abroad (68%), freedom of enterprise are broadly supported. However, the significance of Law has considerably declined whereas the significance of the Leader's strong personality has increased. Society is governed by those who have more wealth and power. Qualitative changes in the ideological component of value preferences of the Russians are reflected in pluralism of ideas/goals of rallying and developing modern Russia. In society there is no idea to become nation-wide and to get support of the majority. The ideas of great power Russia (48%) and of building new Russia as a legal state (46%) draw most nearly to it. Value systems of the majority of the Russians ensure their approval of ideals of a democratic market society, readiness to continue reforms in spite of substantial social costs. Transformation processes reveal themselves in the inner crisis of value consciousness. The main differentiating factors are age and residence. At present in Russia two models of value consciousness coexist. One is associated with individualistic Western model (25-30%), the other with bearers of traditional Russian mentality (35-40%). Another part of population has a contradictory type of value consciousness (30-35%).