CitationGregory, Cria O.; Dai, Jun; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; & Stein, Aryeh D. (2007). Occupation is more important than rural or urban residence in explaining the prevalence of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in Guatemalan adults. Journal of Nutrition, 137(5), 1314-1319.
AbstractDiet and activity pattern changes consequent to urbanization are contributing to the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease; less research has focused on activity within rural populations. We studied 527 women and 360 men (25–42 y), all rural-born and currently residing in rural or urban areas of Guatemala. We further classified rural male occupations as agricultural or nonagricultural. Overweight status (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) differed by residence/occupation among men (agricultural-rural, 27%; nonagricultural-rural, 44%; and urban, 55%; P< 0.01) and women (rural, 58%; and urban, 68%; P= 0.04). A moderate-to-vigorous lifestyle was reported by 76, 37, and 20% of men (agricultural-rural, nonagricultural-rural, and urban, respectively; P< 0.01); most women were sedentary, with no difference by residence. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 17, 24, and 28% in agricultural-rural, nonagricultural-rural, and urban men, respectively (P= 0.2), and 44 and 45% in rural and urban women (P= 0.4). Dietary variables were largely unassociated with adiposity or cardio-metabolic risk factors; physical activity was inversely associated with the percentage of body fat in men. Percent body fat was inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol, and positively associated with triglycerides, blood pressure, and the metabolic syndrome in both men and women, and with LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose in women. Differences in physical activity level, mainly attributable to occupation, appear more important than residence, per se, in influencing the risk for cardiovascular disease among men; differences among these sedentary women are likely related to other factors associated with an urban environment.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleJournal of Nutrition
Author(s)Gregory, Cria O.
Stein, Aryeh D.