Klopov, Eduard V. (1998). Secondary employment as a form of social and labor mobility. Sociological Research, 37(2)
Among the most striking phenomena reflecting the transitional state of contemporary Russian society is secondary employment in addition to one's principal job; this phenomenon has assumed very large proportions. In evaluating its scale, E. Khibovskaia, who has regularly followed this process using data from the monitoring of economic and social change conducted by VTsIOM [the Russian Center for Public Opinion Research], estimates that in the mid-nineties at least ten to fifteen million people, or 15-20 percent of the country's employed population, had supplementary employment. Moreover, she is convinced that the various forms of secondary employment actually account for up to 30 percent of all those employed
Klopov, Eduard V.