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Moshammer, Hanns; Martin-Diener, Eva Christine; Mäder, Urs; & Martin, B (2005). Sedentarism.. Hens, Luc; Howard, Vyvyan; & Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P. (Eds.) (pp. 135-154). The Netherlands: Springer.


The importance of physical activity has been well established over the last decades and a wealth of different endpoints has been identified. A dose-response-relationship could be demonstrated for most of these endpoints, most clearly for overall mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. While most of the studies have investigated the associations with overall physical activity, only very few have been able to study the independent effects of transport-related physical activity.
Physical inactivity is a world-wide public health problem. Although methodological issues still restrict the possibilities to quantify this problem in absolute terms and to carry out intercultural and international comparisons, subgroups with particularly low activity levels and changes over time can be documented. Current recommendations for physical activity underline the health enhancing effects of rather short although regular episodes of training which can easily be integrated into everyday life. A systematic integration of data from the health and from the transport sector has not yet taken place. But there is evidence for the effectiveness of a growing number of interventions in increasing physical activity among the inactive, and transport-related physical activity has a great potential in the promotion of overall physical activity. This overall rationale is well accepted, but the quantification of the relationships and effects remains difficult, mainly due to the need for an internationally agreed definition and measure of physical activity on the population level, the lack of data for the contribution of transport-related physical activity to overall physical activity and therefore to health. Realistic estimations of effects of transport interventions on transport patterns (modal shift) are essential not only for the health effects of physical activity, but also for other transport-related factors like air pollution or noise.

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Encironmental Science and Technology Library


Moshammer, Hanns
Martin-Diener, Eva Christine
Mäder, Urs
Martin, B