CitationDavis, Catherine G. (2011). Estimation of the number of days required to determine usual antioxidant intakes and assessment of the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among college students. Master's thesis / Doctoral dissertation.
AbstractHigh intake of antioxidant rich foods has been shown to decrease risk factors of chronic disease. Young adulthood may be crucial in establishing healthy lifestyles including adequate nutrient consumption.
The present study was designed 1) to estimate usual nutrient intakes, 2) to calculate the number of days required to estimate usual antioxidant intake, and 3) to assess intake adequacy from diet and diet + supplement sources by using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). The USDA Flavonoid and Proanthocyanidin databases, food consumption data, and dietary supplement use data from 60 students aged 18-25 years at the University of Connecticut were utilized.
After applying the Goldberg cut-off equation defined for this population, 27% of participants were classified as misreporters of intake. Males consumed higher mean intakes than females for 13 of the 27 nutrients after adjusting for energy intake (P<0.05). After adjusting for energy and gender, a 7-day dietary recall was adequate to achieve r ³ 0.9 for fat, carbohydrate, protein, lycopene, and proanthocyanidin. More than 40% of females had intakes below the EAR for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. With the addition of a supplement, supplement users consumed more for all nutrient intakes except vitamin A (P<0.05). Nutritional adequacy of users improved for vitamins D and E, and magnesium compared to non-users (P<0.05). Overall, more than 7 days would be required to estimate usual nutrient intakes, students were consuming intakes below adequacy for most nutrients, and supplement usage increased nutrient intake and adequacy compared to nonusers.