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To gather respondents’ employment information, we followed the standard practice of asking about respondents’ work in several different ways: the name of their profession or occupation, the name of their job or position (dolzhnost) (which often includes information about workers’ level of skill or responsibility), what duties they normally perform, etc. Their verbatim answers were put into a computer file as long string variables. With non-project funds, a computer program was developed which, functioning like a word processor thesaurus, proposed codes consistent with codes approved for similar answers in the past. However, we did not allow the computer program to assign codes automatically since the program might miss nuances in the answers. Rather, a coder was required to approve the proposed code.

Occupations were coded according to the four-digit International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-88 (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1990). Considerable care was devoted to taking into account the idiosyncrasies of the Russian labor market. For example, medsestra is normally translated to mean “nurse.” The ISCO classifies nurses as professionals and defines professionals as those involved in “Increasing the existing stock of knowledge, applying scientific and artistic concepts and theories to the solution of problems, and teaching about the foregoing in a systematic manner. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the fourth ISCO skill level.” Since Russian nurses do not normally function at this level and were never considered to be professionals in the former Soviet Union, they were classified at the level that the ISCO assigns to nurses’ aides in the West.

The four-digit codes can be collapsed into one-, two-, or three-digit codes. The following list provides the one-digit codes. This does not, in our estimation, constitute a valid ordinal scale. For example, many professionals also perform secondary managerial functions and may have more authority over other employees than some people who are classified as managers. Crafts workers may well be more skilled, educated, and highly paid than some clerks.

    1. Legislators, Senior Managers, Officials
    2. Professionals
    3. Technicians and Associate Professionals
    4. Clerks
    5. Service Workers and Market Workers
    6. Skilled Agricultural and Fishery Workers
    7. Craft and Related Trades
    8. Plant and Machine Operators and Assemblers
    9. Elementary (Unskilled) Occupations
    10. Army

ISCO Four-Digit Occupation Codes

1110 Legislators
1120 Senior government officials
1130 Traditional chiefs and heads of villages
1141 Senior officials of political-party organizations; revolutionaries
1142 Senior officials of employers’, workers’ and other economic-interest organizations
1143 Senior officials of humanitarian and other special-interest organizations
1210 Directors and chief executives
1221 Production and operations department managers in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
1222 Production and operations department managers in manufacturing
1223 Production and operations department managers in construction
1224 Production and operations department managers in wholesale and retail trade
1225 Production and operations department managers in restaurants and hotels
1226 Production and operations department managers in transport, storage and communications
1227 Production and operations department managers in business services
1228 Production and operations department managers in personal care, cleaning and related services
1229 Production and operations department managers not elsewhere classified
1231 Finance and administration department managers
1232 Personnel and industrial relations department managers
1233 Sales and marketing department managers
1234 Advertising and public relations department managers
1235 Supply and distribution department managers
1236 Computing services department managers
1237 Research and development department managers
1239 Other department managers not elsewhere classified
1299 Landowners; gentry (pomeshchik)
1311 General managers in agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
1312 General managers in manufacturing
1313 General managers in construction
1314 General managers in wholesale and retail trade
1315 Commandants (not military); administrator with higher or specialized secondary education
1316 General managers in transport, storage and communications
1317 General managers of business services
1318 General managers in personal care, cleaning and related services
1319 General managers not elsewhere classified
1510 Master with higher education; steward; bailiff (prikazchik)
1520 Landowner; khoziain; edinolichnik; building owner
1530 Coop owner
1540 Dvorianin; noblemen; shliakhta; prince; statskii covetnik
1550 Small business owner
1590 Other
2000 “Intelligentsia;” scientific worker, NEC
2111 Physicists and astronomers
2112 Meteorologists
2113 Chemists
2114 Geologists and geophysicists
2121 Mathematicians and related professionals
2122 Statisticians
2131 Computer systems designers and analysts
2132 Computer programmers
2139 Computing professionals not elsewhere classified
2141 Architects, town and traffic planners
2142 Civil engineers
2143 Electrical engineers
2144 Electronics and telecommunications engineers
2145 Mechanical engineers
2146 Chemical engineers
2147 Mining engineers, metallurgists and related professionals
2148 Cartographers and surveyors
2149 Architects, engineers and related professionals not elsewhere specified, engineers with higher education NEC
2211 Biologists, botanists, zoologists and related professionals
2212 Pharmacologists, pathologists and related professionals
2213 Agronomists and related professionals
2221 Medical doctors
2222 Dentists
2223 Veterinarians
2224 Pharmacists
2229 Health professionals (except nursing) not elsewhere classified (medik with higher education)
2230 Nursing and midwifery professionals
2300 Teachers with higher education
2310 College, university and higher education teaching professionals (including prepodanateli in VUZ)
2320 Secondary education teaching professionals; teachers (uchitelia)
2331 Primary education teaching professionals
2332 Pre-primary education teaching professionals
2340 Special education teaching professionals
2351 Education methods specialists
2352 School inspectors
2359 Other teaching professionals not elsewhere classified
2411 Accountants
2412 Personnel and careers professionals
2419 Business professionals not elsewhere classified
2421 Lawyers
2422 Judges
2429 Legal professionals not elsewhere classified
2431 Archivists and curators
2432 Librarians and related information professionals
2400 Art critics
2441 Economists
2442 Sociologists, anthropologists and related professionals
2443 Philosophers, historians and political scientists
2444 Philologists, translators and interpreters
2445 Psychologists
2446 Social work professions
2451 Authors, journalist and other writers
2452 Sculptor, painters and related artists
2453 Composers, musicians and singers
2454 Choreographers and dancers
2455 Film, stage and related actors and directors
2460 Religious professionals
3111 Chemical, physical and science technicians
3112 Civil engineering technicians
3113 Electrical engineering technicians
3114 Electronics and telecommunications engineering technicians
3115 Mechanical engineering technicians
3116 Chemical engineering technicians
3117 Mining and metallurgic technicians
3118 Draughtspersons
3119 Physical and engineering science technicians not elsewhere classified; engineers without higher education, NEC; lab workers
3121 Computer assistants
3122 Computer equipment operators
3123 Industrial robot controllers
3131 Photographers and image and sound recording equipment operators
3132 Broadcasting and telecommunications equipment operators
3133 Medical equipment operators
3139 Optical and electronic equipment operators not elsewhere classified
3141 Ships’ engineers
3142 Ships’ deck officers and pilots
3143 Aircraft pilots and related associate professionals
3144 Air traffic controllers
3145 Air traffic safety technicians
3151 Building and fire inspectors
3152 Safety, health and quality inspectors
3211 Life science technicians
3212 Agronomy and forestry technicians
3213 Farming and forestry advisors
3221 Medical assistants
3222 Sanitarians
3223 Dieticians and nutritionists
3224 Optometrists and opticians
3225 Dental assistants
3226 Physiotherapists and related associate professionals
3227 Veterinary assistants
3228 Pharmaceutical assistants
3229 Modern health associate professionals (except nursing) not elsewhere classified (medik with secondary education)
3231 Nursing associate professionals; nurses without higher education, NEC
3232 Midwifery associate professionals
3241 Traditional medicine practitioners
3242 Faith healers
3310 Teachers with less than higher education
3320 Pre-primary education teaching associate professionals
3330 Special education teaching associate professionals
3340 Other teaching associate professionals; vocational education masters
3411 Securities and finance dealers and brokers
3412 Insurance representatives
3413 Estate agents
3414 Travel consultants and organizers
3415 Technical and commercial sales representatives
3416 Buyers; purchasing agent
3417 Appraisers, valuers and auctioneers
3419 Finance and sales associate professionals not elsewhere classified
3421 Trade brokers
3422 Clearing and forwarding agents
3423 Employment agents and labor contractors
3429 Business services agents and trade brokers not elsewhere classified
3431 Administrative secretaries and related associate professionals
3432 Legal and related business associate professionals
3433 Bookkeepers
3434 Statistical, mathematical and related associate professionals
3439 Administrative associate professionals not elsewhere classified
3441 Customs and border inspectors
3442 Government tax and excise officials
3443 Government social benefits officials
3444 Government licensing officials
3449 Customs, tax and related government associate professionals not elsewhere classified
3450 Police inspectors and detectives
3460 Social work associate professionals
3471 Decorators and professional designers
3472 Radio, television and other announcers
3473 Street, night-club and related musicians, singers and dancers
3474 Clowns magicians, acrobats and related associate professionals
3475 Athletes, sports persons and related associate professionals
3479 Artistic directors (khudruk); cultural-educational workers
3480 Religious associate professionals
4000 Sluzhashchie (non-manual workers, often implies specialized education)
4111 Stenographers and typists
4112 Word-processor and related operators
4113 Data entry operators
4114 Calculating machine operators
4115 Secretaries
4121 Accounting and bookkeeping clerks
4122 Statistical and finance clerks
4131 Stock clerks
4132 Production clerks
4133 Transport clerks
4141 Library and filing clerks
4142 Mail carriers and sorting clerks
4143 Coding, proof-reading and related clerks
4144 Scribes and elated workers
4190 Other office clerks
4211 Cashiers and ticket clerks
4212 Tellers and other counter clerks
4213 Bookmakers and croupiers
4214 Pawnbrokers and money-lenders
4215 Debt-collectors and related workers
4221 Travel agency and related clerks
4222 Receptionists and information clerks
4223 Telephone switchboard operators
5100 Servants
5111 Travel attendants and travel stewards
5112 Transport conductors
5113 Travel guides
5121 Housekeepers and related workers
5122 Cooks
5123 Waiters, waitresses and bartenders
5131 Child-care workers
5132 Institution-based personal care workers
5133 Home-based personal care workers
5139 Personal care and related workers not elsewhere classified
5141 Hairdressers, barbers, beauticians and related workers
5142 Companions and valets
5143 Undertakers and embalmers
5149 Other personal services workers not elsewhere classified
5151 Astrologers and related workers
5152 Fortune-tellers, palmists and related workers
5161 Fire-fighters
5162 Police officers
5163 Prison guards
5169 Protective services workers not elsewhere classified
5210 Fashion and other models
5220 Shop salespersons and demonstrators
5230 Stall and market salespersons
6111 Field crop and vegetable growers
6112 Tree and shrub crop growers
6113 Gardeners, horticultural and nursery growers
6114 Mixed-crop growers
6121 Dairy and livestock producers
6122 Poultry producers
6123 Apiarists and sericulturists
6124 Mixed-animal producers
6129 Market-oriented animal producers and related workers not elsewhere classified
6130 Market-oriented crop and animal producers
6141 Forestry workers and loggers
6142 Charcoal burners and related workers
6151 Aquatic-life cultivation workers
6152 Inland and coastal waters fishery workers
6153 Deep-sea fishery workers
6154 Hunters and trappers
6210 Subsistence agricultural and fishery workers
7000 Masters; brigadiers NEC (not in agriculture)
7100 Construction workers NECX
7111 Miners and quarry workers
7112 Shot firers and blasters
7113 Stone-splitters, cutters and carvers
7121 Builders, traditional materials
7122 Bricklayers and stonemasons
7123 Concrete placers, concrete finishers and related workers
7124 Carpenters and joiners
7129 Building frame and related trades workers not elsewhere classified; prorab (construction superintendents)
7131 Roofers
7132 Floor layers and tile setters
7133 Plasterers
7134 Insulation workers
7135 Glaziers
7136 Plumbers and pipe fitters
7137 Building and related electricians
7139 Germetchik and other workers in the final stages of construction
7141 Painters and related workers
7142 Varnishers and related painters
7143 Building structure cleaners
7211 Metal molders and coremakers
7212 Welders and flame cutters
7213 Sheet-metal workers
7214 Structural-metal preparers and erectors
7215 Riggers and cable-splicers
7216 Underwater workers
7221 Blacksmiths, hammer-smiths and forging-press workers
7222 Tool-makers and related workers
7223 Tokar (7213, lathe operator)
7224 Shlifovshchitsa (grinder/polisher)
7231 Mekhanik (mechanic)
7232 Aircraft engine mechanics and fitters
7233 Agricultural- or industrial-machinery mechanics and fitters
7241 Slesar (locksmith)
7242 Electronics fitters
7243 Electronics mechanics and servicers
7244 Telegraph and telephone installers and servicers
7245 Electrical line installers, repairer and cable jointers
7311 Precision-instrument makers and repairers
7312 Musical-instrument makers and tuners
7313 Jewelry and precious-metal workers
7321 Abrasive wheel formers, potters and related workers
7322 Glass-makers, cutters, grinders and finishers
7323 Glass engravers and etchers
7324 Glass, ceramics and related decorative painters
7331 Handicraft workers in wood and related materials
7332 Handicraft workers in textile, leather and related materials
7341 Compositors, typesetter and related workers
7342 Stereotypers and electrotypers
7343 Printing engravers and etchers
7344 Photographic and related workers
7345 Bookbinders and related workers
7346 Silk-screen, block and textile printers
7411 Butchers, fishmongers and related food preparers
7412 Bakers, pastry-cooks and confectionery makers
7413 Dairy-product makers
7414 Fruit, vegetable and related preservers
7415 Food and beverage tasters and graders
7416 Tobacco preparers and tobacco products makers
7421 Wood treaters; coopers (cask makers)
7422 Cabinet-makers and related workers
7423 Woodworking-machine setters and setter-operators
7424 Basketry weavers, brush makers and related workers
7431 Fibre-preparers
7432 Weavers, knitters and related workers
7433 Tailors, dressmakers and hatters
7434 Furriers and related workers
7435 Textile, leather and related pattern-makers and cutters
7436 Sewers, embroiderers and related workers
7437 Upholsterers and related workers
7441 Pelt dressers, tanners and fellmongers
7442 Shoe-makers and related workers
8000 Masters; brigadiers in plants and factories; skilled factory workers NEC
8111 Mining-plant operators
8112 Mineral-ore- and stone-processing-plant operators
8113 Well drillers and borers and related workers
8121 Ore and metal furnace operators
8122 Metal melters, casters, and rolling-mill operators
8123 Metal-heat-treating-plant operators
8124 Metal drawers and extruders
8131 Glass and ceramics kiln and related machine operators
8139 Glass, ceramics and related plant operators not elsewhere classified
8141 Wood-processing-plant operators
8142 Paper-pulp-plant operators
8143 Papermaking plant operators
8151 Crushing-, grinding- and chemical-mixing-machinery operators
8152 Chemical-heat-treating-plant operators
8153 Chemical-filtering- and separating-equipment operators
8154 Chemical-still and reactor operators (except petroleum and natural gas)
8155 Petroleum- and natural-gas-refining-plant operators
8159 Chemical-processing-plant operators not elsewhere classified
8161 Power-production-plant operators
8162 Steam-engine and boiler operators
8163 Incinerator, water-treatment and related plant operators
8171 Automated-assembly-line operators
8172 Industrial-robot operators
8211 Machine-tool operators (rotary milling)
8212 Cement and other mineral products machine operators
8221 Pharmaceutical- and toiletry-products machine operators
8222 Ammunition- and explosive-products machine operators
8223 Metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators
8224 Photographic-products machine operators
8229 Chemical-products machine operators not elsewhere classified
8231 Rubber-products machine operators
8232 Plastic-products machine operators
8240 Wood-products machine operators
8251 Printing-machine operators
8252 Bookbinding-machine operators
8253 Paper-products machine operators
8261 Fibre-preparing-, spinning- and winding-machine operators
8262 Weaving- and knitting-machine operators
8263 Sewing-machine operators
8264 Bleaching-, dyeing- and cleaning-machine operators
8265 Fur- and leather-preparing-machine operators
8266 Shoemaking- and related machine operators
8269 Textile-, fur- and leather-products machine operators not elsewhere classified
8271 Meat- and fish-processing-machine operators
8272 Dairy-products machine operators
8273 Grain- and spice-milling-machine operators
8274 Baked-goods, cereal and chocolate-products machine operators
8275 Fruit-, vegetable- and nut-processing-machine operators
8276 Sugar production machine operators
8277 Tea-, coffee- and cocoa-processing-machine operators
8278 Brewers’, wine- and other beverage-machine operators
8279 Tobacco production machine operators
8281 Mechanical-machinery assemblers
8282 Electrical-equipment assemblers
8283 Electronic-equipment assemblers
8284 Metal-, rubber- and plastic-products assemblers
8285 Wood and related products assemblers
8286 Paperboard, textile and related products assemblers
8290 Other machine operators and assemblers
8311 Locomotive-engine drivers
8312 Railway brakers, signalers and shunters
8320 Drivers not specified
8321 Motor-cycle drivers
8322 Car, taxi and van drivers
8323 Bus and tram drivers
8324 Heavy truck and lorry drivers
8329 Drivers, not further specified
8331 Motorized farm and forestry plant operators
8332 Earth-moving- and related plant operators
8333 Crane, hoist and related plant operators
8334 Lifting-truck operators
8340 Ships’ deck crews and related workers
9111 Street food vendors
9112 Street vendors, non-food products
9113 Door-to-door and telephone salespersons
9120 Shoe cleaning and other street services elementary occupations
9131 Domestic helpers and cleaners
9132 Helpers and cleaners in offices, hotels and other establishments
9133 Hand-launderers and pressers
9141 Building caretakers
9142 Vehicle, window and related cleaners
9151 Messengers, package and luggage porters and deliverers
9152 Doorkeepers, watchpersons and related workers
9153 Vending-machine money collectors, meter readers and related workers
9161 Garbage collectors
9162 Sweepers and related laborers
9211 Farm-hands and laborers; dekkhanin; kolkhoznik; kpest’ianin; doyarka; teliatnitsa; vinarka; pastukh; chaban; polevod; osemenitel
9212 Forestry laborers
9213 Fishery, hunting and trapping laborers
9311 Mining and quarrying laborers
9312 Construction and maintenance laborers: roads, dams and similar constructions
9313 Building construction laborers
9321 Assembling laborers
9322 Hand packers and other manufacturing laborers
9329 Unskilled workers, NEC
9331 Hand or pedal vehicle drivers
9332 Drivers of animal-drawn vehicles and machinery
9333 Freight handlers
0110 Armed forces